Seminar: CPS Seminar
date: 2016 December 5 (Mon) 15:00-17:30
room: Kobe University Rokko Campus Faculty of Science Building 3,609 Seminar room

speaker 1: Driss Takir (United States Geological Survey Astrogeology Science Center, Physical Scientist)
title: Primitive Asteroids: Clues to the Formation of our Solar System
abstract: Telescopic observations of carbon- and water-rich asteroids are important to constrain many questions related to the abundance and distribution of water and organic material in the early Solar System, and their significant roles in the cosmochemical evolution of many diverse Solar System bodies. Members of some of these asteroids, especially among the C-complex, are widely thought to be linked to CM and CI carbonaceous chondrites. I have been observing water-rich asteroids using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and Gemini North telescopes. Thus far, this investigation has allowed the identification and distribution of at least four 3-um spectral groups, each of which is presumably related to distinct surface mineralogy. A supporting study examined spectra of CM and CI carbonaceous chondrites in the laboratory under asteroid-like conditions. In this study I identified three spectral groups of CM chondrites (in addition to the CI chondrite Ivuna) on the basis of the 3-um band center and shape of spectra, showing that distinct parent body aqueous alteration environments experienced by different carbonaceous chondrites can be distinguished using reflectance spectroscopy. Spectral comparisons of meteorites and asteroids have been challenging because meteorite spectra have generally been acquired in ambient terrestrial environments, and hence are contaminated by atmospheric water. However, in our investigation meteorite reflectance spectra were measured under dry conditions (vacuum and elevated temperature) to mimic space conditions and minimize the adsorbed water that affected previous analyses. In this talk I will discuss how 3-um reflectance spectroscopy is crucial in linking water-rich asteroids to carbonaceous chondrites. I will also discuss the implications of this work for the returned carbonaceous samples from asteroids Bennu (OSIRIS-REx target) and Ryugu (Hayabusa2 target). Additionally, I will discuss this work's relevance to potential future NASA space missions (e.g., Asteroid Redirect Mission) and future CubeSat missions (12 U and 27 U classes) to explore and study water-rich asteroids.
keywords: primitive asteroids and meteorites, spectroscopy, telescopic observations, planetary space missions

speaker 2: Thomas G. Mueller (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Scientist)
title: Asteroids in the thermal infrared
abstract: Asteroids have been observed at thermal infrared wavelength for more than three decades. These thermal emission measurements allow to derive reliable size and albedo values, but also help to characterise physical and thermal properties of the surfaces of small bodies. Thermal measurements are important to study the Yarkovsky force, a non-gravitational influence on the orbits of small asteroids, to constrain spin properties, to estimate possible grain sizes, and to investigate thermal influences on the surface materials.
I'll present some recent applications of radiometric techniques for near-Earth, main-belt, Centaurs, and trans-Neptunian objects, including also the latest results on 162173 Ryugu
(1999 JU3), the Hayabusa2 mission target.
keywords: Minor planets, asteroids: individual, Radiation mechanisms: Thermal, Techniques: photometric, Infrared: planetary systems
organizer: Fumihiko Usui